Middle Class Success
For over 100 years, sterling silver flatware stood as the hallmark of upper-middle-class success. When new technologies of the Industrial Revolution, as well as American discoveries of silver ore, increased production and lowered costs, a growing upper middle class fell under the spell of silver's white luster.
Until the mid-20th century, brides registered their favorite patterns and began collecting place settings, tea sets, trays, olive forks, cake servers, meat and fish servers, sugar cube tongs, and a vast array of tableware and flatware.
Different-sized utensils had designated places beside plates. During a meal, a diner switched forks for every course. Salad forks, dinner forks, and dessert forks bracketed each plate. A variety of utensils were specifically designed for cheeses, vegetables, lunch, and for use by children.
Sterling Vs Silverplate
Silver is a precious metal called Argentum in Latin, specified as Ag on the Periodic Table of Elements. Soft and easy to work, silver needs the addition of another metal to make it useful. Sterling silver is an alloy containing 92.5% silver and 7.5% nickel or copper.
Sterling silver made in the US is marked with the word "sterling" or the number "925." British silver pieces display three coded marks: the first for the city of production, the second a lion with a raised paw (called Lion Passant), then a single letter representing the year of production.
Silverplate was developed in the 1840s. A base metal is coated with a thin layer of silver. Silverplate is inexpensive and does not last as long as sterling.
Older, well-used silverplate will often show wear, especially on the ends of fork tines. Silverplate can be quite ornate and very pretty. It can be found in thrift stores or online for about $1.00 per utensil. Of course, beautiful, unusual, or rare pieces will cost more. Some silverplate is of higher quality and has some heft to it.
Decorating magazines and some specialty shops offer mixed pattern place settings in silverplate. Mixing patterns can be a fun, eclectic way to set the table.
Occasionally silverplate is misrepresented online. Some sellers do not understand the difference. Look for sterling online from sellers who offer close-up pictures as well as the marker's mark on the back.
There are a few foreign companies that produce silverplate marked "sterling" or "925" and offer it online as sterling. The low prices should serve as a warning to avoid these fraudulent sellers.
usually lighter in weight
deeper color and luster
usually lighter in color
lasts for generations
lasts 20 years
marked Sterling or 925
can be melted down for value
no melt value
Collecting sterling for investment is not the same as collecting for your own satisfaction. Sterling silver is an expensive commodity even though the demand has fallen in the last 50 years. Collecting for investment depends on the vagaries of fashion as well as the commodity market. Value depends entirely on demand. Grandmother's silver may be ornate and beautiful, but collectors today gravitate toward sleeker, more modern pieces.
Collecting sterling silver demands a lot of research. There is so much to learn!
The Value of Sterling Silver
Silver has been mined for thousands of years and used for coinage and ornamentation. Oddly enough, it was more valuable in the 1200s than it is today. Discoveries of ore in the Americas lowered its value and made silver more available. Mid-19th century discoveries in the US, like the famous Nevada Comstock Lode, lowered the prices even more.
Occasional price hikes can make the value of silver spike. There have been times in the past when the value soared briefly. At such times, silver flatware, tableware, and jewelry were melted down. As of June 2021, the price of silver was about $27.74 per ounce, 89 cents per gram.
If you are looking at the price of silver, learn if the piece is weighed in standard ounces or troy ounces. A troy ounce is 10% heavier than a standard ounce.
Collectors are generally interested in products made by well-known, high-quality manufacturers of fine tableware, such as Tiffany. Highly coveted patterns earn top dollar, while lesser patterns are worth little more than their melt value. In general, American brands are not as hot as British, European, and Russian items.
Obviously, a dinner fork will not be as valuable as a particular serving piece. A large set would include many dinner forks but only one specific serving piece (like a cold meat fork or a fish server). And many people purchased place settings without buying all the extra available pieces.
Remember that value is a relative term. To an antique silver collector, a fork worth $25.00 may be relatively worthless. To many people, a $25.00 fork seems quite expensive.
Inheriting Grandmother's Silver
If you find yourself with a box of grandmother's sterling, there are many options. You may decide to keep and use it. Sentimental value and the appreciation of fine tableware make this choice simple. However, you may want to identify each item and assess its value for your own information. You may need to have your silver appraised for insurance purposes.
- Have it appraised. A jeweler or antique appraiser will have the resources and knowledge to identify and value your collection. However, a formal appraisal may be costly.
- Researching vintage or antique can be time-consuming and difficult. But if you enjoy research, here are a few tips:
- Look for the maker's mark on the back of the utensil. In addition to the word "sterling" or the number "925," you may see the name of the manufacturer. The Stieff silver pictured above (second from the left) was easily identified as a cold meat fork in the famous Rose pattern. The pattern changed slightly over the years. That may help me learn when it was made.
- Casual information may help as well. Do you recall the silver being used in your grandmother's house? If so, when? Did she ever claim that the silver once belonged to her own mother? These are clues that can quickly help date an item.
- Online sites like Replacements and Kovel's display a vast collection of sterling silver. You can check these sites and locate your piece by finding the names of the manufacturer. These sites offer photographs that can be enlarged to view details. Replacement value can be learned there as well.
- If you check auction sites like eBay when looking for prices, check the sold price, not the suggested price.
Silver tarnish is a chemical reaction that creates black marks on silver. It is easily removed with commercial silver polish. The best way to avoid tarnish is to use your silver every day!
Tarnish can be helpful if you are hunting through a pile of flatware at a rummage sale. Items that look awful will probably be silver.
Below are some pictures of a silverplate sugar bowl before and after polishing. It took about 5 minutes if that long.
Some silverplate may appear to be tarnished when actually the dark gray is the base metal - the thin silver plate is worn off!
For Further Reading
- English Silver Hallmarks Dealer Guides by Judith Banister
- Jackson's Hallmarks: English, Scottish, and Irish Silver and Gold Marks From 1300 to Present Day by Ian Pickford
- Encyclopedia of American Silver Manufacturers by Dorothy Rainwater
- Kovel's American Silver Marks by Ralph Kovel and Terry Kovel
- The Book of Old Silver: English, American, Foreign by Seymour B. Wyler
- America Sterling Silver Flatware 1830s - 1990s: A Collector's Identification and Value Guide by Maryanne Dolan
- Silverware of the 20th Century The Top 250 Patterns by Harry L. Rinker
- Silver Plated Flatware An Identification and Value Guide 4th Revised Edition by Tere Hagan
Remember that older values may not reflect current values. These books can help you learn about silver and silverplate and how to identify the patterns and hallmarks on your flatware and tableware.
Questions & Answers
Question: I was given a silverware service set for four as a wedding gift in 1947. Two pieces are missing. The set is in a wood-grained, velvet-lined box. What do you think it's worth?
Answer: Look at the underside of one of the pieces to see who made it and if it is sterling. Sterling is much more valuable than silver plate. I have identified some old silver by describing searching on Google images. Some patterns are in more demand than others, so it is impossible for me to tell you how much your silver is worth.
You can research your silver in this book:
"Silver: A Practical Guide to Collecting Silverware and Identifying Hallmarks" by Joel Langford
If your pieces are plated:
"Silverplated Flatware: An Identification and Value Guide, 4th Revised Edition" by Tere Hagan. This will help more with identification, but as it was printed in 2008, it will not reflect current values.
Once you identify your flatware, you can search values at Kovels, Replacements, or Worthpoint online.
Question: I found a spoon with EPNS A1 CARIS BROS and an anchor mark plus made in England. There's no other marks or dates on it. How old would it be?
Answer: You can research the hallmarks on your spoon by checking out some books like:
""English Silver Hallmarks Dealers Guides" by Judith Banister
"Guide to Marks of Origin on British and Irish Silver Plate From Mid 16th Century to 1963..." by Frederick Bradbury
There are so many silver products that this may take some time. The first book includes information on how to read and understand hallmarks as well as years of production. It also includes how to spot forgeries. The second book is dedicated to silver plated items.
Question: I have a Joel F Hewes plate of 6 7/8" dia and 10 troy oz. Does it have any value other than as melt?
Answer: Joel F. Hewes created beautiful silver in the Arts and Crafts style. Melting down such a piece may seem offensive to many who appreciate old silver. Check online auction and sales sites to view values. There is a lot of interest in Hewe's creations. I would not advise melting it.
Question: From Replacements.com I can get an idea for the value of vintage Gorham Fairfax flatwear for 12, but I can’t find the more decorative Fairfax #4B dinner set for 12, circa 1910. How do the two fairfax pattern values compare?
Answer: As I am not a valuation service, I can only point you in the right direction. Replacements tells you the retail value of a piece. That is what one would expect to pay for the item at a store. It does not promise that you would make that amount from a sale. Your interest in the value of your silver depends on why you want the value.
If you want to have the silver valued for insurance purposes, say, in case your home is robbed, you will want to find the replacement value. The same goes for valuing items in the case of a will,or for tax purposes. In that case you should find an appraiser in your area. An appraisal is a legal document that can be used for estate values or insurance. Find an appraiser by checking out the American Society of Appraisers, or contact your insurance broker or the estate manager at your bank for information on qualified appraisers in your area. Make sure that the professional has expertise in silverware.
If you are merely curious, you want to find an estimate of the value to sell privately or online, you can have an evaluation done of your items. There are online sites that will do this for a small fee. Of course the person who is doing this online can not feel or get the best look at your silver as they rely on photographs. These evaluators do not spend the amount of time that a certified appraiser will on your silver.
Some auction houses offer valuations for a small fee or for free. They are looking for items to sell. They can suggest what you can reasonably expect to earn from an auction sale. As auction houses often sell to dealers, and take a percentage of the final sale, the stated value will not be as high as the one from a professional appraiser. Some museums offer appraisal days as well. They may offer it for free or at a low cost.
You may also want to check out the Association of Small Collectors of Antique Silver for more information.
Question: I found what looks like a dessert fork, but it is tarnished. On the end of the handle, it has a stamp that says "Holiday Inn." Do you know the approximate time this was used and is there any historical value?
Answer: Clean the fork with silver polish to remove tarnish. If it is silver, it is probably silver plate. The silver plate may have worn off. Old hotel silverware can be quite collectible and of course, some is worth more than others. Flatware from an old or significant hotel would be more valuable than that from an inexpensive chain. Holiday Inns were established in 1952 and the first one opened in 1953. Kemmon Wilson wanted to offer travelers comfortable and affordable accommodations. So it is not exactly old and there were plenty of them.
Old hotel silverware can be quite inexpensive and fun to collect.
Question: I have the initials CEN in a leaf how do I find who that is?
Answer: When researching anything, you need to be specific in your description. The word "leaf" is not enough. Do you mean a piece of pottery that looks like a leaf, a glass leaf, or jewelry?
On a pendant if it is on the front and obvious it could be personal and someone's initials. If it is etched on the back of a piece of jewelry it may represent the maker. On pottery or glass it could represent the company that produced it.
There are online sites with images of backstamps. Identify what it is that you have and you may find charts of backstamps that will help you. Many books offer information on specific maker's marks on pottery, dishware, glass, or jewelry.
Question: I have a silver platter embossed with butterflies and flowers. I can not find the image anywhere. How can I identify my platter?
Answer: The first and easiest way to identify your silver is to look on the bottom of the piece for any information there. If it is sterling, it will be marked as such. You should also see some indication of the manufacturer as well. Search for the marks by describing what the mark looks like in Google images. You can go to a site like Kovel's or check out the Online Encyclopedia of Silver Marks, Hallmarks, and Maker's Marks.
There are many books that can help you with this. They are listed in the article. You may find several of the books at your local library or purchase them used online.
Question: What is EPNS?
Answer: EPNS stands for electroplated nickel silver. This means that the base metal of, say, a spoon was made of nickel silver then coated with silver. Electroplating is a process that uses electricity to coat one metal with another. Nickel silver is not silver at all but an alloy of copper, nickel, and zink. It is called nickel silver due to its silvery appearance.
EPSS mean that the base metal is stainless steel.
These letters can be seen on silver plated flatware.
© 2017 Dolores Monet
Dolores Monet (author) from East Coast, United States on April 25, 2020:
Letters on the back of a spoon may have several meanings, depending on the shape of the letters or whether they are enclosed in, say, a rectangle. For instance, the RR can refer to a variety of British manufacturers.. Your best bet is to check out an online database for silver hallmarks to find the image that looks like the marks on the back of your spoon. You can also find a book with that information.
Siyar on April 24, 2020:
I have 2 spoon with RR And SN or NS Mark on it.
Can you tell me what it is.
Dolores Monet (author) from East Coast, United States on November 22, 2019:
Hi Regina - your best bet is to find a copy of "Miller's Pocket Fact File: Silver and Sheffield Plate Marks Including a Guide to Makers and Marks" by John Bly. You can't add photos in the comments section. There is also an older book you may find used online "The Book of Sheffield Plate" by Seymour Wyler.
Regina McDonald on November 19, 2019:
Hi. My question is not about table ware but a very old Sheffield silver plate cruet set that was given to me.
The glass is pink, I believe cranberry glass. It has four pieces - salt and pepper shakers, vinegar/dressing container and what I think must be a mustard container with a glass spoon. The vinegar and mustard containers are lightly frosted at the top. The holder has a beautiful design of what appears to be english or dutch folks dancing and such. The bottom is signed Sheffield along with a few marks I cant make out.
I have photos but am brand new here and need to figure out how to attach them.
Any input is appreciated. In the mean time I'll try adding photos.
Dolores Monet (author) from East Coast, United States on January 19, 2017:
Hi Nell - most of the pieces I checked out were relatively inexpensive. Of course inexpensive is a relative term, haha. But as I said in the article, it's those more unusual pieces that hold value. I have so little, most of the pictures on here are of things that belong to a friend.