A Guide to British Sterling Silver Hallmarks
British sterling silver hallmarks help to identify the maker and year of manufacture of sterling silver items produced by Great Britain. Understanding and learning to recognize these marks can help you avoid costly mistakes in both the purchase and sale of antique English silver. This guide will explain what each mark means and how to find them on a piece of antique British sterling silver.
I've been buying and selling antique silver for many years now. When I first started going to estate sales, I was always drawn to the silver gleaming on the tables. I didn't know what the marks meant, but I was determined to find out. Thus began my education and passion for silver. I found great resources online, bought out of print books on the subject and picked the brains of antique dealers I met. The knowledge I have gained has helped me score some big finds over the years. The estate salespeople often miss these sterling treasures and sell them cheap, not realizing their great value. I once purchased an English silver sovereign case for $5 at an estate sale and later sold it on eBay for $250.
Learning to recognize these marks will help you to find treasures too, maybe even in your own home. Here's how to read the marks.
The British Standard for Sterling Silver
Ever hear the word "sterling" used to describe a person? "Why, John has a sterling reputation". Britain's long use of the sterling standard has made the word "sterling" mean the pinnacle of quality, whether in metal or a person's character.
By law, British sterling must be 925 parts silver to 75 parts other alloy metals, or 925/1000. This is known as the "sterling standard." This standard has been in place in Great Britain for centuries, with most other countries adopting this standard much later... Every removable part of a British sterling item must be fully hallmarked. For example, a teapot with a lid will have marks on the pot, as well as on the lid.
Look for hallmarks on the underside, rims, and handles of items.
British System of Sterling Silver Hallmarks
All of Great Britain use the same system to mark their sterling silver. Each item is assayed (tested) for quality, then marked with a series of 4 - 5 symbols, each in a cartouche of the same shape. The shape is used with letters to help date the item. The hallmarks will tell you if the item is sterling silver, what town it was assayed in, the date of assay and the maker's initials.
British Sterling Quality Marks
The symbol for English sterling is a walking lion, or "Lion Passant". Most countries that live under the reign of the British crown have their own sterling mark, instead of the lion. Scotland uses a thistle flower, Ireland uses a harp, and so on. Make a note that England itself has made the bulk of sterling wares over the centuries. Items from Scotland and Ireland are rare and can command higher prices.
British Town Marks
The town or city mark denotes the place where the item was tested for its silver quality, or "assayed". Common town marks are:
- London: Leopard's head (with or without a crown)
- Birmingham: Anchor
- Dublin: Seated lady
- Edinburgh - Castle
British Date Marks
British date marks use letters from A - Z to represent dates. Each town of assay uses its own system. London uses A - U, Birmingham uses A - Z, etc. One letter represents one entire year, then it changes to the next letter in the following year. Some letters can be omitted, like "J" or "V", because they are too similar to other letters. When the last letter is reached, the alphabet is repeated, but with a different style of lettering or font.
The style of letter changes every 20 years or so, For instance, the letter "A" can be either lowercase "a" or uppercase "A", BLOCK or script, or even old English. There are guide books that can help you identify the date mark on most older pieces of sterling silver.
British Sterling Maker's Marks
The maker's mark is a series of initials representing the name of the silversmith or company. They are set into a cartouche, usually the same as the other marks, but not always. For example; W & H, for Walker & Hall of Sheffield is set within a flag. A crown on top of the initials means that the maker was a designated crown jeweler for that year, serving the royal family in repairs and creating new things for royal use.
Other British Silver Marks
Britannia Mark: A seated woman; Used by law from 1697 - 1720, optional later; denotes higher quality silver than sterling at 958/1000.
Monarch's Head: A duty mark denoting taxes paid to the crown. This tax was instituted in 1784, after the American Revolution, to rebuild Britain's coffers that the war had drained. This tax remained in place until 1890, when it was rescinded. The image was changed to reflect the current reigning monarch.
Tips on Collecting Antique British Sterling Silver
Find English Sterling Silver at various places, including:
- local antiques shops and auction houses
- estate sales
- eBay, RubyLane, or other antiques websites.
Terms to know and questions to ask:
- Solid Silver: Often used by International Sellers in place of "Sterling". Be careful though, as sometimes this means that the silver content is NOT sterling, but coin silver. Coin silver is still considered "solid" silver, but the actual silver content is lower, anywhere from 800 - 900 parts per 1000, instead of sterling's 925. Read the description carefully. Ask the seller questions if you aren't sure.
- Era: English silver is often listed by the era it was produced in. This includes words like Colonial, Victorian, Edwardian, and Modern.
- Always ask the seller for a picture of the hallmarks, if one is not shown on the listing.
- Ask questions about the condition. eBay sellers are notorious for giving very few details in their descriptions sometimes. Always ask if the description is sparse. Ask if there are any deep scratches or dents in the silver, broken hinges, detached handles, etc.
Questions & Answers
What is a Castle imprint for on a silver-trimmed glass dish?
The castle mark can mean different things, depending on what it looks like. British sterling uses different forms of castles to indicate that the pieces were assayed in the towns of Exeter, and Newcastle in England, and Edinburgh in Scotland. The Danish use a castle with three pointy spires to indicate that it is from Denmark. You will need to go to a website with a pictorial archive of hallmarks to try to match up the castle on your silver with one in their archive. An excellent archive that I use is the Encyclopedia of Silver Marks, or 925/1000.com. If you can't find a match in their pages of the countries I suggested, do a more in-depth search on the pages of the site. They have hallmarks from every major silver producing country in the world.Helpful 2
I have a scroll and rose creamer. The handle side is 4.5" tall. The pour spout is 2". The bottom has a raised crest with 3 raised marks. The first is a lion rampant mark, next to it crossed keys, and the mark below these is an Old English "P". It appears to be silver plate. Can you tell me anything about this?
Yes! That was made by Prill Silver Co out of New York. The company has been around since 1936 and specializes in sterling holloware (yes, that is spelled correctly). If your piece is sterling, it should be marked somewhere. If not, you may want to take it to a jeweler and get it tested. Prill may not be in business anymore. They seem to have no presence on the internet, except for people trying to figure out who they are.
The marks A1 R P N S S on British sterling silver I know. A1 is supposed to be of high quality, but I can't find a lion stamp or anything like that. Any ideas as to if it is actually sterling? And if so, why does it not have the lion?
A1 is usually a mark found on silverplate. I doubt that what you have is sterling. It is most likely American made, but I have never seen or heard of those other initials, nor can I find them on the website I use for checking. So sorry, but that one will remain a mystery.
I have earrings that have the abbreviation "STC" on them, with a tiny numeric 4, and sterling screw on type backings. They have green and white stones, and I can't I.D the maker through any site. Any ideas?
Hi, I am not familiar with that maker's mark. If it's newer jewelry, the websites may not have been updated to show this mark. The only thing I can suggest is to go to either the Online Encyclopedia of Silver website, or the Illusion Jewels website. They have pretty extensive lists of makers. I don't know what the "4" is for, either.Helpful 1
Can I send you (the writer of this article) pictures of the marks?
Yes! Click on my name. Go to my Profile. Click on "Fan Mail" on the right side of the page. Just say hello and tell me your questoin. I will reply and give you my email address to send some pictures to.Helpful 1