British Sterling Silver Hallmarks
A Guide to Reading and Understanding English Silver Marks
British sterling silver hallmarks help to identify the maker and year of manufacture of sterling silver items produced by Great Britain. Understanding and learning to recognize these marks, can help you avoid costly mistakes in both the purchase and sale of antique English silver. This guide will explain what each mark means and how to find them on a piece of antique British sterling silver.
I've been buying and selling antique silver for many years now. When I first started going to estate sales, I was always drawn to the silver gleaming on the tables. I didn't know what the marks meant, but I was determined to find out. Thus began my education and passion for silver. I found great resources online, bought out of print books on the subject and picked the brains of antique dealers I met. The knowledge I have gained has helped me score some big finds over the years. The estate sales people often miss these sterling treasures and sell them cheap, not realizing their great value. I once purchased a English silver sovereign case for $5 at an estate sale and later sold it on eBay for $250.
Learning to recognize these marks will help you to find treasures too, maybe even in your own home. Here's how to read the marks.
The British Standard for Sterling Silver
Ever hear the word "sterling" used to describe a person? "Why, John has a sterling reputation". Britain's long use of the sterling standard has made the word "sterling" mean the pinnacle of quality, whether in metal or a person's character.
By law, British sterling must be 925 parts silver to 75 parts other alloy metals, or 925/1000. This is known as the "sterling standard." This standard has been in place in Great Britain for centuries, with most other countries adopting this standard much later... Every removable part of a British sterling item must be fully hallmarked. For example, a teapot with a lid will have marks on the pot, as well as on the lid.
Look for hallmarks on the underside, rims and handles of items.
British System of Sterling Silver Hallmarks
All of Great Britain use the same system to mark their sterling silver. Each item is assayed (tested) for quality, then marked with a series of 4 - 5 symbols, each in a cartouche of the same shape. The shape is used with letters to help date the item. The hallmarks will tell you if the item is sterling silver, what town it was assayed in, the date of assay and the maker's initials.
British Sterling Quality Marks
The symbol for English sterling is a walking lion, or "Lion Passant". Most countries that live under the reign of the British crown have their own sterling mark, instead of the lion. Scotland uses a thistle flower, Ireland uses a harp, and so on. Make a note that England itself has made the bulk of sterling wares over the centuries. Items from Scotland and Ireland are rare, and can command higher prices.
British Town Marks
The town, or city mark denotes the place where the item was tested for it's silver quality, or "assayed". Common town marks are:
London - Leapord's Head (with or without a crown)
Birmingham - Anchor
Dublin - Seated Lady
Edinburgh - Castle
British Date Marks
British date marks use letters from A - Z to represent dates. Each town of assay uses it's own system. London uses A - U, Birmingham uses A - Z, etc. One letter represents one entire year, then it changes to the next letter in the following year. Some letters can be omitted, like "J" or "V", because they are too similar to other letters. When the last letter is reached, the alphabet is repeated, but with a different style of lettering or font. The style of letter changes every 20 years or so, For instance, the letter "A" can be either lowercase "a" or uppercase "A", BLOCK or script, or even old English. There are guide books that can help you identify the date mark on most older pieces of sterling silver.
British Sterling Maker's Marks
The maker's mark is a series of initials representing the name of the silversmith or company. They are set into a cartouche, usually the same as the other marks, but not always. For example; W & H, for Walker & Hall of Sheffield is set within a flag. A crown on top of the initials means that the maker was a designated crown jeweler for that year, serving the royal family in repairs and creating new things for royal use.
What iis it? Answer the questions below using the information you just learned.view quiz statistics
Other British Silver Marks
Britannia Mark - A seated woman. Used by law from 1697 - 1720, optional later. Denotes higher quality silver than sterling at 958/1000.
Monarch's Head - A duty mark denoting taxes paid to the crown. This tax was instituted in 1784, after the American Revolution, to rebuild Britain's coffers that the war had drained. This tax remained in place until 1890, when it was rescinded. The image was changed to reflect the current reigning monarch.
Tips on Collecting Antique British Sterling Silver
Find English Sterling Silver at various place.; local antiques shops and auction houses, estate sales, or onlin at eBay, RubyLane or other antiques websites. Terms to know and questions to ask.
- Solid Silver - Often used by International Sellers in place of "Sterling". Be careful though, as sometimes this means that the silver content is NOT sterling, but coin silver. Coin silver is still considered "solid" silver, but the actual silver content is lower, anywhere from 800 - 900 parts per 1000, instead of sterling's 925. Read the description carefully. Ask the seller questions if you aren't sure.
- Era - English silver is often listed by the era it was produced in. This includes words like: Colonial, Victorian, Edwardian, and Modern.
- Always ask the seller for a picture of the hallmarks, if one is not shown on the listing.
- Ask questions about the condition. eBay sellers are notorious for giving very few details in their descriptions sometimes. Always ask if the description is sparse. Ask if there are any deep scratches or dents in the silver, broken hinges, detached handles, etc.
How to Identify English Silver Marks
Questions & Answers
I have a mens ring and inside are the marks, "Br Sterling Silver." Does the "Br" note "British"?
No. Br is likely a makers initials. There is a maker out of Finland that uses those marks...Helsinki, Börje Rajalin: BR 1958-1982. However, if this is Finnish silver, it would have another assay, country and date marks and not just say "Sterling Silver".
I have a silver tea service of 7 pieces with a hallmark of a crown, followed by a B, then S, then possibly a Q. I can find no other markings. The set is quite heavy. What can you tell me about it ?
Your tea set was made by the Birmingham Silver Company. They were in business from 1957 to 1974 first in New York, and later moved to Connecticut. The set is silverplate. Sometimes this company made silver on copper items. These tend to be quite heavy, but weight alone may not be an indicator of whether or not there is copper underneath. You may have to do a scratch test in an inconspicuous part, like under a lid, or on the bottom of a teapot, to see if there is copper under the silver. Silver on copper tends to be more valuable than silverplate made with a pot metal base.
I have some silverware I found with a lion in a crown holding a arrow, it does have several hallmarks on the back, I'm not sure how ti identify, can you recommend a site that could help?
The website I use for most of my research is the Encyclopedia of Silver Marks at 925-1000.com They have the most complete list of marks from around the world. Your silverware doesn't sound English. It could be American, or just about from anywhere else. It will take you some time, but will be worth it in the end if you are able to find a match. You can also post a picture of the mark to their forum and sometimes people there can help you identify the marks.Helpful 4
I have a teaspoon. On the back of the handle reading from left to right: Lion passant, upper case C, a man's profile (wearing a wig) and the letters HS. Does this maker's mark mean this teaspoon is sterling silver?
This sounds like it is sterling, however, you are missing a mark. There should be a city mark, like a crown, castle, anchor, etc... The person in profile is most likely a duty mark. Check for a crown mark. If you can find it, this piece is most likely made by Henry Stafford. He operated out of Sheffield in the last half of the 1800's. The duty mark is most likely Queen Victoria, who reigned during that period. The "C" is a date mark. You would have to match it up with the date mark table on the Encyclopedia of Silver Marks website. Look under British Silver, and Sheffield. See if you can match up your marks to what you see there.
I have a teapot that dates 1906. On the botton, there is a mark with the letters "JE" and "SS." Is this pot sterling?
Without any other marks on it, it doesn't look like it would be sterling. Are the initials and date stamped into the metal or engraved (cut into)? I can't find any makers with those initials, and most makers don't just put a date on their wares, unless it is coded...like in British sterling. I suspect that, if this is engraved, it is a wedding gift and bears the initials of the bride and groom and the date of their marriage. Is this a family piece? If so, you might be able to make sense of it with some family research.