A Guide to British Sterling Silver Hallmarks
British sterling silver hallmarks help to identify the maker and year of manufacture of sterling silver items produced by Great Britain. Understanding and learning to recognize these marks can help you avoid costly mistakes in both the purchase and sale of antique English silver. This guide will explain what each mark means and how to find them on a piece of antique British sterling silver.
I've been buying and selling antique silver for many years now. When I first started going to estate sales, I was always drawn to the silver gleaming on the tables. I didn't know what the marks meant, but I was determined to find out. Thus began my education and passion for silver. I found great resources online, bought out of print books on the subject and picked the brains of antique dealers I met. The knowledge I have gained has helped me score some big finds over the years. The estate salespeople often miss these sterling treasures and sell them cheap, not realizing their great value. I once purchased an English silver sovereign case for $5 at an estate sale and later sold it on eBay for $250.
Learning to recognize these marks will help you to find treasures too, maybe even in your own home. Here's how to read the marks.
The British Standard for Sterling Silver
Ever hear the word "sterling" used to describe a person? "Why, John has a sterling reputation". Britain's long use of the sterling standard has made the word "sterling" mean the pinnacle of quality, whether in metal or a person's character.
By law, British sterling must be 925 parts silver to 75 parts other alloy metals, or 925/1000. This is known as the "sterling standard." This standard has been in place in Great Britain for centuries, with most other countries adopting this standard much later... Every removable part of a British sterling item must be fully hallmarked. For example, a teapot with a lid will have marks on the pot, as well as on the lid.
Look for hallmarks on the underside, rims, and handles of items.
British System of Sterling Silver Hallmarks
All of Great Britain use the same system to mark their sterling silver. Each item is assayed (tested) for quality, then marked with a series of 4 - 5 symbols, each in a cartouche of the same shape. The shape is used with letters to help date the item. The hallmarks will tell you if the item is sterling silver, what town it was assayed in, the date of assay and the maker's initials.
British Sterling Quality Marks
The symbol for English sterling is a walking lion, or "Lion Passant". Most countries that live under the reign of the British crown have their own sterling mark, instead of the lion. Scotland uses a thistle flower, Ireland uses a harp, and so on. Make a note that England itself has made the bulk of sterling wares over the centuries. Items from Scotland and Ireland are rare and can command higher prices.
British Town Marks
The town or city mark denotes the place where the item was tested for its silver quality, or "assayed". Common town marks are:
- London: Leopard's head (with or without a crown)
- Birmingham: Anchor
- Dublin: Seated lady
- Edinburgh - Castle
British Date Marks
British date marks use letters from A - Z to represent dates. Each town of assay uses its own system. London uses A - U, Birmingham uses A - Z, etc. One letter represents one entire year, then it changes to the next letter in the following year. Some letters can be omitted, like "J" or "V", because they are too similar to other letters. When the last letter is reached, the alphabet is repeated, but with a different style of lettering or font.
The style of letter changes every 20 years or so, For instance, the letter "A" can be either lowercase "a" or uppercase "A", BLOCK or script, or even old English. There are guide books that can help you identify the date mark on most older pieces of sterling silver.
British Sterling Maker's Marks
The maker's mark is a series of initials representing the name of the silversmith or company. They are set into a cartouche, usually the same as the other marks, but not always. For example; W & H, for Walker & Hall of Sheffield is set within a flag. A crown on top of the initials means that the maker was a designated crown jeweler for that year, serving the royal family in repairs and creating new things for royal use.
Other British Silver Marks
Britannia Mark: A seated woman; Used by law from 1697 - 1720, optional later; denotes higher quality silver than sterling at 958/1000.
Monarch's Head: A duty mark denoting taxes paid to the crown. This tax was instituted in 1784, after the American Revolution, to rebuild Britain's coffers that the war had drained. This tax remained in place until 1890, when it was rescinded. The image was changed to reflect the current reigning monarch.
Tips on Collecting Antique British Sterling Silver
Find English Sterling Silver at various places, including:
- local antiques shops and auction houses
- estate sales
- eBay, RubyLane, or other antiques websites.
Terms to know and questions to ask:
- Solid Silver: Often used by International Sellers in place of "Sterling". Be careful though, as sometimes this means that the silver content is NOT sterling, but coin silver. Coin silver is still considered "solid" silver, but the actual silver content is lower, anywhere from 800 - 900 parts per 1000, instead of sterling's 925. Read the description carefully. Ask the seller questions if you aren't sure.
- Era: English silver is often listed by the era it was produced in. This includes words like Colonial, Victorian, Edwardian, and Modern.
- Always ask the seller for a picture of the hallmarks, if one is not shown on the listing.
- Ask questions about the condition. eBay sellers are notorious for giving very few details in their descriptions sometimes. Always ask if the description is sparse. Ask if there are any deep scratches or dents in the silver, broken hinges, detached handles, etc.
Questions & Answers
I have a question about a hallmark which appears to be a 3 leaf clover in a square recess. It is the only hallmark on a possibly Victorian, round, silver box. I can't find any mention of this hallmark and was wondering if you might have any knowledge of it?
Hi. A .3 leaf clover is unusual. Most companies that use a clover in a hallmark use the 4 leaf clover...for it's a connotation of giving good luck. The only hallmark I could find that is just a single clover (and a 4 leaf clover at that) is from the Howard Sterling Company. I don't think it is a match. Sorry I could be more help.
I have a silver teapot with sugar and creamer that is very old. I was told it was from Scotland, but I'm not certain. It has four markings, and next to those markings (which I cannot make out) is "JG" with an "S" underneath. There is a number under those markings of "02362." Can you help me figure out what this is?
Without a full description of all the marks, I really can't tell you what you have. It sounds American though, with that number "02362" American silver makers mark parts of a set in sequential numbers. Look at all the pieces and see if that is true. A trick to revealing marks that are hard to read is to hold a lit candle just under the marks, so that it makes the mark area all sooty. Let it cool, then take a piece of clear take and press it over the marks. Lift it carefully and stick the tape to a piece of plain, white paper. Take an up-close, macro photo of the marks and then enlarge them, wither with imaging software, or on a copy machine. It is amazing how well this technique works. If you can make out the marks better, come back and describe them to me, or send a note to me through "contact the author." I think that is found either on the article page or my profile. Then I can tell you how to email me directly with a picture of the marks. Good luck.Helpful 2
On a teapot bottom, some of the markings seem to be obscured on the top with what appears to be an iron cross with a crown in the center and a cartouche with #7 inside Above the stamp number is 1119 – can you tell me about this teapot with lid and sea-grass covered handle?
Your teapot was made by the Manchester Silver Co. They were in business, out of Rhode Island, from 1914 - 1985. The number "1119" is a pattern number. Other pieces in the tea set would have consecutive numbers. The number 7 is likely some other identifier, like maybe a date mark, which we don't have a code for. If the teapot isn't marked "sterling", then it is silverplate.
I have a roll top, footed butter dish with engravings of British landmarks. It is marked "39," then 5 symbols of which the center one is a crown. (I can't make out the other four.) Under the mark is "Made in England." My mother told me that her brother brought it to her from England after the Korean war. Can you help me identify this piece and the approximate value?
Obviously, it is made in England for export to the U.S., (thus the "Made in England" mark). Your piece could be either silverplate, or sterling, but with the number "39" on it, I am leaning towards silverplate. The crown mark is both a mark for Sheffield made sterling, and a mark used by silverplate manufacturers to try to confuse people into thinking they were buying sterling. You will have to look up marks for both English sterling and silverplate. I would try either 925/1000.com or silvercollection.com. They both have very good archives of marks, complete with pictures that you can match your marks up to.Helpful 1