How to Write Flash Fiction: Short Story Writing

Updated on May 2, 2020
Beth Eaglescliffe profile image

I teach creative writing to adults and love helping my students improve their writing skills.

Flash or micro fiction makes a short story bright and memorable.
Flash or micro fiction makes a short story bright and memorable. | Source

What are the Rules of Flash Fiction?

Flash Fiction is the modern term given to a very short story; usually one under 400 words in length. There is no standard definition and some people argue the term only applies to stories of less than 300 words and others say that any story under 1,000 words qualifies. Whatever the agreed length of flash fiction, it should still contain all the elements that you would expect to find in a longer story.

Elements of Flash Fiction Explained

Flash fiction must have a beginning, middle and an end. For the story to have impact there should be some change in action or motivation of the protagonist. The reader needs to feel that there is some kind of resolution by the end of the story.

Writing to such a tight brief is difficult. It is a different skill to that of writing a novel. Flash fiction requires brevity. An author needs to convey character and plot in a succinct manner and make every word count.

Writing flash fiction is fun. If you're nervous about getting started, I recommend you read In a Flash!: Writing & Publishing Dynamic Flash Prose. It will inspire you to try out the genre for yourself. The book is written in an informal, chatty way that makes it easy to see that writing flash fiction is a must-do for everyone.

How to Craft Sudden or Flash Fiction

The Essential Elements of Flash Fiction

 
 
1. Length of story
Short; can be as brief as 6 words, or as long as 1,000.
2. Character development
The character must engage the reader's emotions.
3. Surprise or Twist
The ending should be unexpected and not predictable.
4. Change or Ephipany
Either a physical change or a change of decision.

For Sale: Baby Shoes, Never Worn

One of the most famous examples of flash fiction is a six word story usually attributed to Ernest Hemingway (although some say it predates him).

“For sale: baby shoes, never worn.”

He is said to have penned this six word short story in response to a bet. It may have been inspired by news published in The Spokane Press on May 16th 1910 entitled "Tragedy of Baby's Death Revealed in Sale of Clothes."

The words “For sale: baby shoes, never worn” engages your emotions because of the sadness implicit behind the final words. You are left wondering why a person had to sell the baby's shoes. Perhaps a baby was still-born or maybe a woman had an abortion after a rape? There are endless possibilities once you start to think about it.

Tiny baby shoes create an emotional response.
Tiny baby shoes create an emotional response. | Source

Tell a Story in a Few Words: An Example

There are many occasions where it's necessary to ask a difficult or awkward question. The YouTube video below is one such lighthearted example. When was the last time you asked someone if they would mind holding your balloon for a moment? What was the result (or what do you think the result would have been)?

This may be a daft example, but it illustrates the awkwardness of asking a difficult question when the recipient cannot immediately see any benefit to them of granting your request. It is also exactly the kind of interaction that makes a great topic for flash fiction. The interaction has a start, a middle and an outcome. It can be funny, whimsical, frightening or informative; it’s your choice.

Asking People to Hold a Balloon

Try Writing Some Flash Fiction

Once you have a go at writing flash fiction, be warned, it can be difficult to stop! Many novice writers use the discipline of writing these short stories as way of training themselves to make every word count. You can also use writing one as an exercise to get over writer’s block.

Don’t be fooled into thinking that it requires less effort than a longer piece of fiction. With flash fiction every word must be meticulously chosen. No word can be wasted; there must be no padding in your story.

I find that the discipline of writing such a short story requires me to pare my writing to the bare minimum. I wrote the following flash fiction story “Coffee Break” as a way of trying to resolve a genuine problem that I had at work. I wanted to persuade my employer that they would benefit as well as me if they allowed me to reduce my working hours. For this story I chose to define my flash fiction word count as being below 350 words.

A coffee break gives you time to pause and gather your thoughts.
A coffee break gives you time to pause and gather your thoughts. | Source

"Coffee Break" by Beth Eaglescliffe

The foam from the coffee made a frothy moustache on her upper lip. Susie looked around the café feeling embarrassed and wiped it away quickly. Her green eyes met those of the elderly gentleman sitting at the next table. “I’m always doing that” she said. Then she wondered why she had bothered to make a comment about something so insignificant.

He nodded in sympathy. “Be thankful you haven’t got a beard like me. My Louise is always nagging me to remove the odd crumb or drip of soup that’s got lodged there.” A small grin passed over his tired face as he thought about his long suffering wife.

Susie smiled back at him and then picked up her pen and notepad once more. This coffee break was just an excuse to take her mind off her immediate problem of not enough hours in each day. How could she get her boss to agree to her going part-time? She stirred her spoon round the half empty mug and scooped up the foam that was still clinging to its sides. “Mm I love the smell of fresh cappuccino”.

The old man stood up to go. Before he left he leant over and said “Thank you for brightening my day”. Susie was surprised. She’d been so engrossed in her own thoughts that she had forgotten all about the other customers. She had made her plan and was keen to go straight to her boss to try it out.

“Employ me in short bursts and like a cappuccino I will be exciting and refreshing. If I have to work long hours I become like a leftover cup of coffee, stale and uninteresting. Shorter hours will help me give you a quality performance rather than a greater quantity of mediocre work.”

Janice, her boss, started to smile. “I’ve got to hand it to you. You have a wonderful way of getting me to see your point of view. I’ll get back to you on it, but I’m pretty sure we can work something out to suit both of us.”

Cats provide endless fascinating situations to write about.
Cats provide endless fascinating situations to write about. | Source

Sudden Fiction Writing Exercise

Here are some quick questions to ask yourself to get you writing great flash fiction. For this exercise keep your story below 100 words and limit the time you write on each one to just 10 minutes.

1. Write about a cat who doesn’t want to get wet.

2. Write about a mole that is digging a burrow.

3. Write about the boot a child lost.

4. Write about the letter that didn’t arrive.

5. Write about the flooded cellar.

And don’t forget to include the essential elements needed given earlier in the article.

Are There Flash Fiction Competitions?

Yes, there are lots of flash fiction contests advertised both locally and nationally. A quick search on the internet brings up thousands of results. However, most of them charge a fee and are money-makers for the organisers rather than prestigious contests. Think about why you want to enter a competition before spending a lot on entry fees. You may find it better to join a local writers' group and share your writing with them instead.

Flash fiction competitions have very specific rules relating to word length. Make sure you read the rules and follow them precisely, or your entry will be disqualified.

The 5 S's of Writing Stories of the Moment

Can You Make Money Writing Flash Fiction?

Making a living by writing short stories, or sudden fiction is no easier nor more difficult than earning from other forms of creative writing. You need skill, perseverance, and a little bit of luck.

Very few authors make enough money to live on through writing alone. Some supplement their creative efforts with teaching, or giving poetry readings. YouTube videos and your own blog can also provide earning opportunities for your flash fiction, or stories of the moment.

How to Write Flash Fiction

David Gaffney, a published writer of flash fiction, gave the following tips in The Guardian newspaper as being essential to crafting this genre.

  1. Start in the middle.

    There's no time in this very short form to set scenes or build character.

  2. Don't use too many characters.

    Don't waste valuable words describing your characters. Even a name may not be useful in a micro-story unless it conveys a lot of additional information.

  3. Make sure the ending isn't at the end.

    Give your readers key information in the first few lines. Then use the next few paragraphs to take them on a journey below the surface.

  4. Sweat your title.

    Make it work for a living.

  5. Make your last line ring like a bell.

    The last line should not complete the story. Instead it should lead to a new place where the reader continues to think about the tale and wonder what it all meant.

  6. Write long, then go short.

    Create a lump of stone from which you chip out your story sculpture.

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

Comments

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  • Isivwe Muobo profile image

    Farrah Young 

    7 days ago from Nigeria

    I've always wanted to write a really brief flash fiction and you jut gave me the tips for achieving this. Thanks.

  • boxelderred profile image

    greg cain 

    8 days ago from Moscow, Idaho, USA

    Hi Beth - I broke the rules and spent more than 10 minutes writing (like 15ish) and maybe worse than that I spent like two days thinking about it. In any case, at 70 words it feels incomplete, but perhaps it does tell a story as it is. Anyway, thanks for putting the challenge out there, and perhaps I'll come back to the others after the weekend. Be well, and thanks for the fantastic article.

    3. Write about the boot a child lost.

    Cycling along road shoulder, glint of yellow in the ditch. Stop. Assess. Single boot, child’s size five.

    Search briefly to no avail for companion boot, or—forbid—companion.

    Finding neither, finding some small comfort in finding neither, rig ankle reflector around straps, secure boot to saddle rails, turn around and head back to town.

    Ride slowly down Main, yellow boot swinging fro and to, store front eyes follow in time.

  • brakel2 profile image

    Audrey Selig 

    4 years ago from Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    Hi Beth - What a great story about flash fiction. I have written several stories but must be in the mood to pen these pieces.They can be somewhat difficult but end up being fun and a challenge. You have described the elements well, and I like your story. Blessings, Audrey

  • grand old lady profile image

    Mona Sabalones Gonzalez 

    5 years ago from Philippines

    This is a wonderful article about flash fiction, especially to an oldie like me. In our day, we used to call it a short, short story. Your hub has shown me the value of flash fiction, in terms of developing writing skills. Very helpful and useful hub!

  • quildon profile image

    Angela Joseph 

    6 years ago from Florida

    I've never attempted flash fiction, even though I do write short stories, but they are usually around 1500 words. But I love the way you explain the importance of having a beginning, middle and end, especially one with a twist. Good job. Maybe I will use one of your prompts one of these days. Voted up and sharing.

  • RachaelOhalloran profile image

    Rachael O'Halloran 

    6 years ago from United States

    As much as I try, I can't write short fiction, much less flash fiction. I also can't get what I want to say out in the least amount of sentences. I'm wordy, I've always been wordy, and I think it is a fear of not being able to get my point across. I need to learn how to use words more effectively. It must be a fine art and I'll have to work on it. All in due time. Thank you for the explanation. Good hub. :)

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